Editor's Introduction I
Part Seven. The New Order
1. The National State 47
§1. Tabula Rasa 47
   a. Man Alone
   b. The Symbol of Natural Right
   c. The Symbol of Science
   d. The Problems of the New Era
§2. In Search of Order 52
   a. The State of Violence Grotius's De Jure Belli
   b. The Regulation of Violence Subjects in International Law
   c. The Authority of Rulership
   d. Nature The Essence of Man
   e. Grotius The Model Man
   f. The Rules of Nature
   g. Grotius and Epicurus
§3. Hobbes 59
   a. Comparison with Machiavelli and Bodin The Problem of Realism
   b. The Analysis of Pride
      aa. The Mechanical Structure of Man
      bb. Loss of the Fruitio Dei
      cc. Fruitio Hominis The Contemplation of Power
      dd. Madness
   c. The Analysis of Fear of Death
   d. The Natural Law Concepts
   e. The Analysis of Commonwealth and Person
   f. Perfection of the Legal Closure of the State
   g. Perfection of the Spiritual Closure of the State
   h. Control of Opinion
   i. Summary: Movement from Below and Pressure from the Top
2. The English Revolution 73
§1. The English Situation 73
§2. James I 74
§3. The Clash with Court and Parliament 76
§4. The Church Constitution The Mayflower Compact 76
§5. The Restriction of Royal Power 78
§6. The Trend toward Sovereignty of Parliament 79
§7. The Covenants 79
§8. The Solemn Engagement of the Army 80
§9. The Agreement of the People 81
§10. The Issues of the Franchise 83
§11. The Charge against Charles I The Declaration of Independence 84
§12. Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, Rhode Island 85
§13. Milton 92
§14. Winstanley 96
§15 Harrington 100
3. Cromwell 104
§1. The Wars of the Fronde State vs. Estates 104
§2. The Continent and England State and the Stateless Political Society 106
§3. The Parliament and the State of England 108
§4. The Position of Cromwell 110
§5. Cromwell and the Will of God 110
§6. The Politics of Cromwell 112
4. Fronde and Monarchy in France 115
§1. The Parlement 115
§2. The Cardinal de Retz 118
§3. Louis XIV 121
5. Spinoza 126
§1. Orientalism 126
§2. The Program of the De Intellectus Emendatione 127
§3. Mysticism 128
§4. Esotericism 129
§5. Hobbes and Spinoza 130
§6. Theory of Power 131
§7. Liberalism 133
§8. The Project of Government 134
§9. The Oath 135
6. Locke 137
§1. TheContract Theory 137
§2. The Theory of Limited Monarchy 138
§3. The Relation with Richard Hooker 140
§4. The Victorious Puritan 140
§5. Locke's Writings on Toleration 141
§6. Toleration and the New Pattern of Revolution 142
§7. Facets of Toleration in the Seventeenth Century 144
§8. The Lord's Dutch Lunch 145
§9. God: The Proprietor of Man 145
§10. Man: The Proprietor of Himself 147
§11. The Civil State Money and Differentiation of Property 149
§12. The Equal Protection of Inequality 150
§13. Spiritual Disease The Revolution-Breeding Element 151
7. Intermission 153
§1. The First Cycle: Order Against Spirit 153
§2. The Second Cycle: The Reassertion of Spirit 155
§3. Spleen and Skepticism 157
   a. The Skepticism of Hume
   b. Reason and Sentiment
   c. Propensities of a Gentleman Spleen
   d. The Social Function of Skeptical Reflection
   e. Sympathy and Convention
§4. Montesquieu 162
   a. Atmosphere of Montesquieu
   b. The Anthropological Question
   c. The People Esprit de Lois
   d. Contents of the Esprit des Lois
   e. A New Sense of History National Destiny
   f. The Idea of a Free Government
§5. The Enlargement of the Geographical Horizon: The Biological Diversification of Mankind 169
   a. Knowledge of New Worlds Beginning Sentiment of Relativity
   b. The Travel Literature Buffon's Histoire naturelle
   c. The System of Human Races
   d. Racial Diversification and Unity of Mankind
   e. The Geographical and Historical Horizons
Part Eight. Last Orientation
Introductory Remarks 175
1. Phenomenalism 178
§1. Phenomenalism and Science 178
   a. Scientism
   b. Phenomenalism and Materialism
   c. Definitions
   d. Pascal and Phenomenal Speculation
   e. Biological Phenomenalism
   f. Economic Phenomenalism
   g. Psychological Phenomenalism
   h. Combination of Types
2. Schelling 193
§1. The Realist in an Age of Disintegration 193
   a. Social Isolation of the Realist
   b. Philosophical Dilettantism
   c. Rationalism
   d. Partiality and Inversion
   e. Ineffectiveness of the Realist
   f. The Influence of Schelling
§2. Elements of Schelling's Position 200
   a. Descartes and Post-Cartesian Speculation
   b. Critique of the Age
   c. The Aphorisms on Reason
§3. Schelling's Speculation 204
   a. Return to Bruno
   b. Return to Kant
   c. Immersion into the Substance of the Universe
   d. The Potenzenlehre
§4. Historical Existence: The Key to Speculation 210
   a. Historical Existence
   b. The Anamnetic Dialogue
   c. Anamnesis and History
   d. Schelling and Hegel
§5. Orgiastic Existence 214
§6. Promethean Existence 217
   a. The Double Life
   b. The Inner Return
   c. Melancholy and Grace
§7. Political Existence 222
   a. The Intelligible Order of Being
   b. State and Church The Covenant of the Peoples
   c. Ideal and Idea
   d. The Polis The Third Dionysus
   e. Mystery and Eschatology
   f. The Third Christianity Christ and Dionysus
§8. Nirvana 233
§9. Conclusion 236
   a. The New Level of Consciousness
   b. A Comparison: Realism and Eschatological Indulgence
   c. Summary
   d. The End of an Epoch
3. Note on Hölderlin 243
4. Nietzsche and Pascal 251
Index 305