VOL 19 Hellenism, Rome, and Early Christianity

General Introduction to the Series
by Thomas A. Hollweck and Ellis Sandoz
Editor's Introduction. 49
Introduction. The Spiritual Disintegration 69
     a. The Problem of Apolitism
     b. Political and Apolitical Revolutions
     c. Formal Apolitism
     d. The Foreign Personnel of the Philosophers
     e. The New Category of the School
     f. The Cynics
     g. Diogenes and Plato
     h. Aristippus The Political Function of Psychology
     i. The Garden of Epicurus
Part One. From Alexander to Actium
1. Alexander 87
  §1. Macedon 87
  §2. Olympias The Son of God 89
  §3. The Conquest 90
  §4. The Element of Imperial Rulership 91
  §5. Homonoia The Empire People 93
2. The Early Stoa 95
  §1. Equality Origins in the Mother Cult 95
  §2. Equality The Equal Sparks of the Divine Substance 97
  §3. Cosmopolis 98
  §4. The Evolution of Moral Personality 98
  §5. The Concept of Duty 99
  §6. The Solitude of the Emperor 99
3. Hellenistic Kingship 101
  §1. Hellenism The Problem of the "Dark Ages" 101
  §2. Divine Kingship 102
  §3. The Animated Law Plato and Aristotle 103
  §4. Diotogenes 104
  §5. Ecphantus 105
  §6. The Savior Kings 107
4. Isreal 108
  §1. The Place of Israel in History 108
  §2. The Concept of the Covenant 109
  §3. Primary and Secondary Democracy 110
  §4. The Covenant as the Source of National Personality 111
  §5. The Rise of Royalty and the Prophets 112
  §6. The Law 112
  §7. Rationality of Conduct Puritanism 113
  §8. The Evolution of Eschatological Sentiment 114
  §9. Deutero-Isaiah The Suffering Servant of the Lord 116
  §10. The Suffering Servant and Christ 119
5. The Destiny of Empire Daniel and Polybius 120
  §1. The Categories of Empire 121
  §2. Daniel The Sequence of Empires 121
  §3. The Experience of Fortune 122
  §4. Fatality and Authority of Empire 123
  §5. The Idea of World History 124
  §6. Cycles 125
  §7. The Tripolity The Real Causes of Roman Success 126
  §8. The "Common Intelligence" The Hieroglyphic Use of Ideas 128
6. Cicero 131
  §1. Barbarism and Renaissance 131
  §2. Success 132
  §3. The Heritage of Panaetius 133
  §4. Rome, the Cosmopolis 135
  §5. The Myth of Government 136
  §6. The Myth of Law 136
  §7. The End of Cicero 138
7. The Golden Age 139
  §1. Caesar 139
  §2. The Monumentum Ancyranum 141
  §3. The Fourth Eclogue Antony and Cleopatra 141
  §4. The Aeneid The Victory of Troy 143
  §5. The Myth of Troy with the Gauls and Franks 145
Part Two. Christianity and Rome
1. The Rise of Christianity 149
  §1. The Problem The Consciousness of Epoch 149
  §2. Jesus 151
     a. Insufficiency of Critical Exegesis of the Gospels
     b. The Nature of the Gospels "Reflection" of Experiences and Events
     c. The Mana of Jesus The Metanoia of the Believer
     d. Physiological and Spiritual Spheres not Separated Thaumaturgic Kingship
     e. Social Characteristics of the Community The Poor and the Rich
     f. A Parallel The "Paroletarian" in the Early Writings of Marx
     g. Attitude toward Wealth and Property
     h. Eschatological Hardness of Jesus
     i. Misunderstanding of the Preference for the Poor
     j. Eschatological Hardness of the Believers The Saints
     k. The Contrast between the Sermon in the Plain and the Sermon on the Mount
     l. The Regulative Function of the Sermon on the Mount
     m. Messianic Consciousness
  §3. The Visional Constitution of the Christian Community 163
     a. Significance of the Visions of the Resurrected
     b. Reports and Interpretations of the Visions
     c. The Constitution of the Community through the Descent of the Spirit
  §4. The Pauline Circle 166
     a. The Apocalyptic Idea of the Kingdom of Heaven
     b. The Epistle to the Hebrews
       aa. Theory of the Christian Community
       bb. The Constitution of the Epochs The Idea of Divinely Planned World History
     c. The Compromises of Paul
       aa. The Compromise with History
       bb. The Compromise with the Weakness of Man The Differences of gifts and the Mystical Body
       cc. The Law of Love
       dd. Eschatological Indifference to Social Problems
       ee. Governmental Authority Ordained by God
2. Christianity and the Nations 173
  §1. The Difficulties of Paul 173
     a. The Universalist Idea of Paul and the Assertion of Ethnic Differences
     b. The Conflict with the Jewish-Christian Community
     c. The Hellenistic Pneumatics
  §2. The National Cores 176
     a. Syrian-Egyptian-Greek-Western Christianity
     b. The Cross-Pattern of Factors National, Civilizational, Dogmatic
     c. The Proselytizing Character of the New Communities
     d. The Political Function of the Christological Heresies
  §3. Johannine Christianity 179
     a. The Persian Elements in the Gospel of John
     b. The Gospel of John, a New Testament
     c. The Marcionite Movement
     d. Montanism The Paraclete The Third Realm
  §4. The Magian Nations 182
     a. Spengler's Theory of the Magian Nations
     b. Jewry, Mazdaism, Manichaeism
     c. The Transformation of Christianity in the Classical Territory
     d. The Easternization of the Classical Cults The Pagan Church The Meaning of the Persecutions
3. The Emperor 186
  §1. The Problem The Easternization of the Empire 186
  §2. The Roman Heritage 187
     a. The Fiction of the Restoration of the Republic The Name Augustus
     b. The Evolution of the Prineps and His Clientele
     c. The Oath for the Princeps
     d. The Name Imperator
     e. The Protectorate of the Princeps
  §3. Eastern Influences 190
     a. The Divinization of the Roman and Italic Emperors
     b. The Late Spaniards Marcus Aurelius and Commodus
     c. The Syrian Emperors Elagabalus, Alexander Severus
     d. The Illyrian Emperors Deus et Dominus
4. The Law 195
  §1. The Greek Heritage 195
     a. The Structure of Legal Theory
     b. The Three Phases of Greek Theory
  §2. The Roman Theory of Law 197
     a. The Ciceronian Identifcation of Roman Order and World Order
     b. The Identification of Ius Gentium and Ius Naturale to the Time of Gaius
     c. The Syrian Phase: The Separation of Ius Gentium and Ius Naturale The Gentes as the Source of Imperfection
     d. Seneca's Critique of Civilization
     e. The Relation of the Stoic Theory to the Christian
  §3. The Christian Theory of Law 200
     a. Christological Variations
     b. The Reception of Stoic Theory
     c. The Trend toward Deification of the Positive Order
     d. The Trend toward Condemnation of the Postive Order
     e. The Compromise The Relative Natural Law
     f. Imperial Authority Lex Regia and Divine Authority
5. Saint Augustine 206
  §1. The Man 206
  §2. The Situation 207
     a. The Emperors and the Church
     b. Disciplinarian Schisms in the Western Church
     c. The Sack of Rome
  §3. Symbolic History 209
     a. Platonic Symbolism in the Civitas Dei
     b. The Construction of Epochs
     c. The Augustinian Construction of Sacred History
     d. The Senescens Saeculum
  §4. The Civitas Dei 213
     a. The Tyconian Theory of the Invisible Church and the Corpus Diaboli
     b. The Augustinian Civitas Dei and Civitas Terrena
     c.Membership in the Civitas Dei
     d. The Problem of Predestination
  §5. Theory of the Republic 216
     a. The Nonspiritual Community Spheres
     b. The Critique of the Ciceronian Conception of the People
     c. The Augustinian Conception of the People
     d. The Reopening of Theoretical Problems
  §6. Profane History Orosius 220
     a. The Problem of Profane History
     b. Periodization of Profane History since Daniel
     c. Orosius' Periodization of Profane History
     d. The Straight-Line Pattern of History