Vol 3 Plato and Aristotle
(CW VOL.16)

Table of Contents

[ Note: Paging for the original 1957 edition is shown in brackets. In the Analytical Table of Contents there are shown page numbers in parentheses as they appeared in the original edition. These are ommitted in the new Collected Works edition.]
Editor's Preface ix
Editor's Introduction  1
Preface 43    [ix]


Chapter 1 Plato and Socrates  57     [3]
Chapter 2 The Gorgias  78    [24]
Chapter 3 The Republic 100    [46]
Chapter 4 Phaedrus and Statesman 189   [135]
Chapter 5 Timaeus and Critias 224   [170]
Chapter 6 The Laws 269   [215]
PART TWO:  ARISTOTLE          [269]
Chapter 7: Aristotle and Plato 325   [271]
Chapter 8: Science and Contemplation 347   [293]
Chapter 9; The Science of the Polis 369   [315]
Chapter 10: On Types of Character and Skepticism 413   [358]
Indexes          [373]
Greek Terms          [373]
Modern Authors          [377]
Subjects and Names          [378]
Combined Index (Collected Works ed.) 429

Analytical Table of Contents



Part One: Plato


Chapter 1: Plato and Socrates

57     [3]
"The Almost Miraculous Effort" (3).
§1. SOCRATES 60      [6]
1. The Apology. The Delphian Order of Wisdom. The Trials of Socrates and Athens (7). 61
2. Drama and Myth of the Socratic Soul. Aeschylean Tragedy and Platonic Dialogue. Dialogue and Rhetoric. Thanatos, Eros, and Dike (10). 64
§2. EROS AND THE WORLD 68      [14]
1. Plato and Sicily. The Seventh Letter. Dion. Erotic Community. Dionysius II. Written Word and Idea-Word (14). 69
2. The Letter to Hermias of Atarneus (20). 75

Chapter 2:  The Gorgias

78      [24]
1. The Existential Issue. "War and Battle." Existential Honesty. Argument and Rhetoric. The Camaraderie of the Canaille (24). 78
2. Pathos and Communication (28). 82
3. The Inverted Philosophy of Existence. Physis and Nomos. Callicles' Admonitions. The Socratic Counterarguments (31). 85
4. The Transfer of Authority. The Murderer Faces the Victim (56). 90
5. The Judgment of the Dead. The Philosopher's Life Toward Death. The Dead Souls. The Presence of the Judgment (39). 93

Chapter 3: The Republic

100      [46]
§1. THE ORGANIZATION OF THE Republic 100      [46]
The Schema. Contents and Interpretation (46).
§2. THE WAY UP AND THE WAY DOWN 106      [52]
Descent. Piraeus and Hades. Pamphylism. Depth of Existence. Paradigm and Daemon. Freedom and Substance. The Savior. Discourse and Life. Ascent from Night to Light. The "There." Motivating Experiences. The Dionysiac Soul (52).
1. The Pairs of Concepts. Justice and Injustice (63). Philosophos and Philodoxos (65). Truth and Lie (67). Philosopher and Sophist (68). 118
2. The Sophistic Doxa of Justice. The Justice of Thrasymachus (71). Resist-ance of the Young (72). The Doxai: (1) Contractual Origin of Justice (74); (2) The Dream of the Invisible Man (76); (5) The Truth of Appearance (78). Society as the Great Sophist (80). 125
§4. THE CREATION OF ORDER 135      [81]
1. The Zetema. Ideal and Reality. Motivating Experiences: Depth and Direc- tion. The Luminous Depth. Nature of the Zetema. Augmentation of the Logos. The Anthropological Principle. Arete; Paradigm; Politeia (82). 136
2. The Foundation Play. The Philosopher-Statesman. The Politeia of the Soul (88). 142
3. The Cognitive Inquiry. The Paradigm of the Good Polis. Eidos; Idea; Physis; Episteme. The Divine Paradigm. The Philosopher's Soul as the Source of Knowledge (93). 147
4. The Poleogony. Transfer of Theogonic Speculation. The Four Orders of the Poleogony: (1) The Healthy Polis; (2) The Luxurious Polis; (3) The Purified Polis; (4) The Philosophers' Polis (96). 150
5. The Phoenician Tale. The Big Lie and the Great Truth. The Brotherhood of Man. Recall of Hesiod and Heraclitus (104). 158
6. The Models of Soul and Society. Equality and Inequality. Diversification of Human Nature (108). 162
7. The Agathon. Transcendental Constitution of the Soul. The Simile of the Sun. The Parable of the Cave. Paideia, Periagoge, Agathon, Katabasis (112). 166
1. The Somatic Unity of the Polis. The Community of Wives and Children. Motivation. The Limitations of Hellenic Tribalism. The Measure (118). 172
2. The Mythical Failure of Incarnation (121). 175
3. The Sequence of Political Forms. Decline from the Good Polis. Taxonomic Nature of the Sequence. The Disintegration of the Psyche. The Dream of Tyranny. The Eros Tyrannos. The Cycle in Political History (123). 177
§6. THE EPILOGUE 183      [129]
Life in the Perspective of Death. The Old Quarrel between Philosophy and Poetry. The Attack on Homer. The New Art (129).

Chapter 4:  Phaedrus and Statesman

189      [135]
§1. The Phaedrus 189       [135]
The Social Realization of the Idea. The Realm of the Soul. Idea and Psyche. Mania. The New Hierarchy of Souls. Emigration of the Spirit from the Polis. The Semi-Divine Psyche (136).
§2. The Statesman 195      [147]
1. The Trilogy of Dialogues. Mediation. The Undercurrent of Violence (141). 195
2. The Diversion of the Theaetetus . The Philosopher and the homo politicus , The Two Paradigms (143). Relation to the Parable of the Cave. The Power of Evil (146). 197
3. The Obscuring Devices of the Statesman (149). 203
4. The Myth of the Cosmic Cycles. The Story. The Hierarchy of Gods. The Trinity (151). The Evolution of Consciousness. The Age of Autonomous Man (154). The Aging World and the Royal Savior (155). 205
5. The Royal Ruler and Political Reality. The Untrue Political Forms (157). The logos basilikos and the Rule of Law (159). The Mimetic Reality of Politics. The Injection of True Substance. Persuasion (162). The Attack on the Government of Law (164). The Royal Ruler and the Royal Art (166). 212

Chapter 5:  Timaeus and Critias

224      [170]
1. The Egyptian Myth. Continuation of the Republic . Solon's Egyptian Story. The Status of the Idea. The Unconscious and Anamnesis. The Truth of the Myth. The Drama in Plato's Soul. The New Art of the Myth (171). 225
2. The Plan of the Dialogues (181). 235
3. The Philosophy of the Myth. The Projection of the Psyche into the Cosmos. The Cosmic Omphalos in the Soul. The Subject Matter of the Myth. Historical Untruth and Evolution of the Myth. The Play with the Myth. Freedom toward, and from, the Myth. Anthropomorphic Man. The Function of the Platonic Myth. Protective Hardness and Tolerance. The Nature of Symbolization: Nonobjective Reality in Objective Form. The Myth of the Myth (183).
4. The Myth of the Myth in the Timaeus . The Myth of the Cosmos. Being and Becoming. The Cosmos as Eikon and the eikos mythos . The Myth as the Truth of Incarnation (194). 248
5. The Myth of the Incarnation in the Timaeus . The Time of the Cosmos: The Eikon of Eternity. The Time of the Tale: The Symbol of the Timeless Process of the Psyche (199). Creation. Demiurge, Nous, Ananke. The Demiurge and the Statesman (201). Peitho and Eros. The Aeschylean Background (203). 253
6. The Critias . The Mythical Aeon. The Co-Eternity of Being (Athens) and Becoming (Atlantis) (205). The Influence of Aeschylus' Persae (207). Atlantis and Utopia (208). Description of Athens and Atlantis (209). Virtue and Wisdom v. Lust and Reason (211). The Rebirth of Fallen Man (213). 259

Chapter 6:  The Laws

269      [215]
1. Misconceptions about the Laws . Style and Organization. The Prejudices of Secularism. The Second-Best Polis. Plato on the Best and Second-Best Polis (215). 269
2. The Platonic Theocracy. The Vision of an Hellenic Empire. Strategy of Unification. Power and Spirit. The Theocratic Conception. From Heroic Appeal to Ecclesiastic Institution. The Religious Poem (223). 277
3. The Dominant Symbols. The End and the Beginning. God. Solstice. Omphalos (228). The Player and the Puppets. The Contracted Symbols of Timelessness. The Late Psychology: Feelings, Apprehensions, Judgment. The Golden Cord. The Plaything of the God. From Nomos to Dogma. From the1 Philosopher-King to the Stranger. The Serious Play (230). "God or Some Man." The Division of the Laws . Man as Lawgiver. The Conditions of Success. Nomos and Nous (236). 282
4. Political Form. A Digression on Drinking. Zeus, Apollo, Dionysos (240). The Cycle. Growth: Rule of Elders, Kingship, the Cities of the Plains, the Nation. Climax: The Doric Federation. Decline: The Greatest Folly, Lace- daemon, Athens, Persia (241). Solstitial Form. Form and Spirit. The Mixed Form and the No-Constitutions. The Monarchic and Democratic materes (246). Philia . The Mean and the Measure. Proportional and Mechanical Equality. Philia among Heterogeneous Elements (248). The Play with Cosmic Numbers. Institutions. Form as Number. The Key-Number Twelve and Its Application. The Numbers of the Pythagorean Tetraktys. Cosmic Harmony (250). 294
5. Revelation at Noon. God the Measure. Persuasion. The Prooemia (253). 307
6. The Drama of the Polis. Theory of Play. J. Huizinga (257). Paidia and Paideia . Play, Education, Leisure. The Growth of Paideia from Paidia . Good and Bad Pleasures. Choric Paideia. The Charms (259). The Noblest of Dramas. The Serious Play of the Polis (262). 311
7. The Creed. The Minimum Dogma. Comparison with Spinoza. The Three Dogmas. Agnosticism and Ambition. The Disease of the Soul (263). The Nocturnal Council. The Last Nomos (265). 316

Part Two: Aristotle


Chapter 7:  Aristotle and Plato

325      [271]
1. The Evolution of Aristotelian Thought. Entrance in the Academy. Exoteric and Esoteric Work. Philosophy as a Way of Life, as a Debate on the Results. The Problem of the Idea. The Intellectual Thinning-Out. The Derailment of Philosophy (271). 325
2. The Literary Structure of the Politics . No Systematic Work. Modern Misconceptions. The Polis as Embodiment of the Transcendent Idea and as a World-Immanent Entity (279). 333
3. The Consciousness of Epoch. Platonic Creation of, and Aristotelian Knowledge about, the Epoch. Plato and the Epochs of the Iranian Myth: Altar Elegy, Laws, Alcibiades I. Speculation on the Historical Cycle. The Abstract Cycle in Problemata. The Schism between the Cycle of Pragmatic Politics and the New Life of the Spirit. The Cycle of Intellectual and Spiritual Insights, in Meteorologica, Metaphysics, and Politics. Theory of the Cycle and Theory of Knowledge. The Lover of Myths (284). 338

Chapter 8:  Science and Contemplation

347      [295]
1. The Range of Political Science. The Decomposition of Theocratic Politics through the Contemplative Attitude. Conservative Hesitations (293). Political Science as Science of Human Action. From Ideas to Standards (294). Ethics and Politics. The Anthropology and the Theory of Excellences. Redefinitions of Political Science (296). The Epistemology of Political Science. The Validity of Propositions and the Revolt against Excellence. The Science of Compulsory Institutions (299). The Authority of the Spoudaios (302). 347
2. The Bios Theoretikos. The Detachment from the Life of Politics. The Highest Happiness. The Life of the Nous. Bios Theoretikos and Vision of the Agathon. The Stellar Religion. Religious Reform (304). Theoretical Life and Politics. Rejected Solutions. The Problem of World Monarchy. The Polis Eudaimon. The Analogies of Autarkous Existence (310). 358

Chapter 9:  The Science of the Polis

369      [315]
1. The Nature of the Polis. Community. The Categories of Nature, Potential- ity and Actualization. Their Advantages and Disadvantages. An Alternative Type of Analysis (315). Politics II. Unity and Diversification. Politike Philia. Homonoia . Community of Women, Children, and Property. The Aristotelian Realism (319). 369
2. The Order of the Polis. The Philosopher's and the Lawgiver's Polis. The Distinction between Nature and Order (323). The Actualization of Order. Constitution as Form. Citizens as Matter. The Good Man and the Good Citizen. The Tension between Nature and Form of the Polis. The Best Polis and the Deficient Actualizations. The Mature Men and the Slaves by Nature. Equality and Inequality. Municiple Ethics. Government as the Representation of Excell- ence (325). The Derailment of the Aristotelian Analysis. The Transfer of Categories from Physics and Metaphysics . The Problem of the Essence of So- ciety. The Aristotelian physis and eidos of the Polis. History and the Fatality of Cosmic Order (331). 377
3. Types of Order. True and Perverted Constitutions. The Rich, the Poor, and the Virtuous. A Compromise Constitution. The Constitutions as Phases of the Historical Course. The Open Manifold of Constitutions (336). 391
4. The Manifold of Political Reality. The Attention to Empirical Detail. ThePrinciples of Inventorization. The Necessary Parts of the Polis; their Variations and Combinations. The Best Constitution as the Standard and the Field of Deficient Forms. Principal Types and Sub-Types. The Middle Class Polity. The Causes of Revolution (342). 396
5. The Best Constitution. The Full Actualization of Human Nature. The choregia . Social Organization. Not to be Realized Pragmatically. Education, Business and Leisure (350). 404
6. Conclusion. From the Myth of the Soul to the Science of Nomothetics. The Principal Theoretical Complexes (355). 409

Chapter 10:  On Types of Character and Skepticism

413      [358]
Types of Character and Types of Ethics. Tension between Actual and Poten- tial Man. The Acceptance of the Deficient Forms of Order (558).
1. The Rhetoric of Aristotle. The Practice of Persuasion. The Character of the Statesman. Appeal to the Usefulness of the Virtues. The Character of the Audience (359). 414
2. The Failure of Immanentist Metaphysics. The Essences of Characters: Types. The Historicity of Transcendent Truth. Human Existence toward Transcend- ence. The Aristotelian Nature of Man an Immanent Essence. The Aporias of the Construction (362). 417
3. The Characters of Theophrastus (366). 421
4. Pyrrho. Happiness as a World-Immanent Aim. The Philosophies of Conduct. Pyrrho's Withdrawal from Philosophy. Skepticism as a Mode of Existence. Epoche and Ataraxy (368). 423