(CW VOL.15)

Table of Contents

[ Note: Paging for the original 1957 edition is shown in brackets. In the Analytical Table of Contents there are shown page numbers in parentheses as they appeared in the original edition. These are ommitted in the new Collected Works edition.]
Editor's Introduction  1
Preface 53   [ix]
Introduction: Mankind and History 67   [1]
Chapter 1: Hellas and History 93   [27]
Chapter 2: The Cretan and Achaean Societies 120  [53]
Chapter 3: Homer and Mycenae 135  [67]
Chapter 4: The Hellenic Polis 181  [113]
Chapter 5: Hesiod 195  [126]
Chapter 6: The Break, with the Myth 234  [165]
Chapter 7: The Aretai and the Polis 254  [184]
Chapter 8: Parmenides 274  [203]
Chapter 9: Heraclitis 292  [220]
Chapter 10: Tragedy 317   [243]
Chapter 11: The Sophists 341   [267]
Chapter 12: Power and History 406   [332]
Indexes         [375]
Greek Terms         [375]
Modern Authors         [378]
Subjects and Names         [380]
Index (Collected Works ed.) 449

Analytical Table of Contents



Introduction: Mankind and History

 67     [1]
Multiple and Parallel Leaps in Being. The Generic-Unique Nature of Man. Concrete Societies and Mankind. Philosophy of History: The Source of the Difficulties. Mysteries and Problems. The Authoritative Structure of History. The Ranking of Authorities (I). The Ancients and the Leaps in Being. Israelite and Hellenic Theology of History. Panaetius and Poseidonius. Truth of the Present and Untruth of the Past. Limitations of the Israelite and Pagan Positions. St. Paul. Stages of the Spiritual Process Toward the Truth of Existence. Coexistence of Truth and Untruth. The Defect of the Pauline Interpretation of History. The Problem of Jewish Existence. The Pagan Policy of Tolerance (7). The Moderns and the Leaps in Being. Bossuet and the Augustinian Tradition. Voltaire. Parallel Profane Histories: Spengler and Toynbee. The Expansion of Sacred History: Hegel. Parallel Sacred Histories: Jaspers and Toynbee (14). Philosophy of History as a Western Symbolism. Clement of Alexandria (23).

Part One: Cretans, Achaeans,
   and Hellenes


Chapter 1: Hellas and History

 93     [27]
The Delimitation of Greek Order. Polis and Philosophy. Cretan, Achaean, and Hellenic Societies. Minoan, Mycenaean, and Hellenic Civilizations. The Range of Greek Order and the Memory of the Classic Period (27).
I. General Characteristics. The Content of the Hellenic Memory and the Historical Process. The Growth of Historical Consciousness (35). 100
2. Herodotus. The Preservation of Traditions. The Case of the Trojan War. The Common Sense Psychology of the Asiatic Frontier. The Destruction of the Myth. The Misunderstanding of Homer (37). 103
3. Thucydides. The Athenian Rationalism of Power. The Reconstruction of Greek History (40). 107
4. Plato. Ordering Memory. The Return to the Cave of Zeus. The Transfer of the Omphalos from Crete to Delphi (43). 109
5. Conclusions. Spatial and Temporal Extension of the Classic Memory. The Motif of Power Organization. The Continuum of Greek History (45). The Construction of the Historical Course. Its Motive. The Term History . The Symbol of the Course (48). 112

Chapter 2: The Cretan and Achaean Societies

120     [53]
Town Cultures as the Basis of Civilizations. The Aegean Town Areas and the Non-Urban Invaders (53).
1. The Cretan Society. History. Minoan Symbols of Order. The Absence of Imperial Institutions (54). 121
2. The Achaean Society. History. The Linear B Tablets. The Decline of the Early Civilizations (61). 129

Chapter 3: Homer and Mycenae

135     [67]
The Migrations. The Formation of an Aegean-wide Society (67).
§ I. HOMERIC QUESTIONS 136     [68]
F. A. Wolf. Homeric Question and Pentateuchal Criticism. The Date of the Epics (68). The Poet's Break with the Cosmological Myth. The Music Author- ity Homer, Pindar, Hesiod. Blindness and Seeing, Remembrance and Oblivion. Immortality through Song (71). The Creation of the Past through Mnemosynic Consciousness (75).
§ 2. ORDER AND DISORDER 144     [76]
1. The Constitutional Order of the Achaean Kingdoms. Size. Federal Organization for War. Constitutional Procedure. Agamemnon's Dream. Procedure in Council, in Assembly. Jovian Order and Royal Rule (77). 145
2. The Wrath of Achilles. The Fate. The Obsession with Death. The Exhorta- tion of Phoenix. The Dialectics of Guilt and Restoration. The Pathology of Achilles. Cholos and Anxiety. The Battle of the Ships. The Death of Patroclus. The Acceptance of Life (83). 151
3. The Eros of Paris and Helen. The Combat. The Scene on the Scaean Gate. The Corruption of Order. Dream and Embrace. The Assembly of the Gods (92). 161
4. The Odyssey on Disorder. The Prologue, The Disorder in Ithaca (98). 167
5. The Aetiology of Disorder. The Sources of Evil. Homer's Anthropology. Human and Divine Action. Agamemnon's Apology. Blindness and Seeing. Divine Order and Human Disorder. The Decline of Mycenaean Civilization. Individual Action and the Pattern of History (101). 169

Part Two: From Myth to


Chapter 4: The Hellenic Polis

181    [113]
1. Synoecism and Gentilitian Structure. The Case of Athens (113). 182
2. The Polls. Decline of Aristocratic Order. The People and the Tyranny. Aristotle on the Athenian Prostasia (116). 185
3. Sympoliteia. The Case of Olynthus (121). 189
4. The Failure of the Leagues. Clan Leagues. Amphictyonic Leagues. The Spartan and Athenian Leagues. The League of Corinth (122). 190

Chapter 5: Hesiod

195    [126]
1. From Myth to Metaphysics. Hesiod's Transitional Form. Aristotle on Theo- logical Philosophies (126). Motivating Experiences. The Poet and His Truth. Truth and Falsehood. Catharsis through Truth and Memory (128). 195
2. The Theogony . The Origin of Order. The Titanomachia and the Evolution of Zeus (131). Theogonic Speculation. The Self-Generating Origin. Mytho-poetic Freedom (133). 200
3. The Works and Days . Invocation and Exhortation. Paraenctic Form. Oriental Affinities. The Great and the Humble (137). The Exhortation to Perses. The Two Erides, Dike. The Virtue of Work. Truth and Admonition (139). 206
4. The Fables. Paradise. Contents and Paradigmatic Purpose (140). The Fable of Pandora (142). 210
5. The Ages of the World. Contents of the Logos (144). Anthropogenic and Epic Myth (146). The Metal Ages (149). Comparison with a Chinese Myth of Five Ages (151). 213
6. The Apocalypse. Delimitation and Structure (154). Experience and Form. The Anxiety of Spiritual Annihilation. Aidos and Nemesis (155). The Fable for Princes. Hybris. Collective Suffering and Reward. The Unjust and the Just Cities. Parallels from the Prophets (158). Historical Reality as Apocalyptic Nightmare. The Nightmare and True Reality (162). 223

Chapter 6: The Break with the Myth

234    [165]
Area and Carriers of Hellenic Civilization. Freedom from Imperial Institutions. The Style of Intellectual Adventure: Homer, Hesiod, the Milesians. The Schools of Pythagoras and Parmenides (165). The Form of Hellenic Civiliza- tion. Comparison with Israel. The Individual Breaks with the Myth (168).
1. The Seemliness of Symbols. The Attack on Homer and Hesiod. The Classifi- cation of Symbolic Forms. Plato's Types of Theology. Truth and Lie of the Soul (171). 240
2. Anthropomorphism. A Fallacious Charge in Retrospect. Critique of Tylor's Theory (174). 243
3. The Universality of the Divine. The One God v. the Parochialism of the Myth. Universality of the Divine and Monotheism (178). 247
4. The Divinity of the One. Aristotle's Recognition of the Problem. Anaximander. The Xenophantic Glance at the Heaven (180). 250

Chapter 7: The Aretai and the Polis

254    [184]
1. The Sophia of Xenophanes. The Attack on the Olympiadic Excellences. The Discovery of Transcendence as a Source of Authority. Universal Appeal and Limitation to the Polis (184). 254
2. The Savage Valor of Tyrtaeus. The Arete of the Polis v. the Homeric Excellences. The Elegiac Form. Existence v. Justice. The Lyricism of Existence. Immortality through the Memory of the Polis. The Discovery of the Aretai and its Completion through Plato. Plato on the Valor of Tyrtaeus (188). 258
3. The Eunomia of Solon. Disorder of the Polls and Order of Dike. Doxa as the Cause of Crisis. The Homeric Excellences as Doxa in the Polis. Arete as Faith in the Unseen Measure. Eunomia of the Soul and the Polis. The Type of the Lawgiver. Solon and Plato (194). 264
4. "But I say unto you. . . ." The Traditional Order and Resistance of the Soul. Sappho. The Authority of Eros. Subjectivity of Opinion v. Objectivity of the Erotic Soul. The Common Doxa and the Solitude of Truth (200). 270

Chapter 8: Parmenides

274    [203]
1. The Way. The Prologue of Parmenides' Poem. The Transport. The Knowing Man and the Renowned Way. Divinity and Immortality of the Soul. Plato on the Soul as Daemon (204). 275
2. The Truth of Being. The Vision. Perception through Nous and Analysis through Logos. Being and Not-Being. The Exclamatory Is ! The Subject of Propositions Concerning Transcendent Being. Propositions not Transferable to Immanent Being. The Predicates of Transcendent Being. The Autonomy of the Logos. The Hieratic Compactness of Truth and Being (207). 279
3. Doxa. The World and the Way. Doxa as Cosmology, as Not-Being. The Likely Doxa of Parmenides and the Likely Myth of Plato. The Ontological Gap between Doxa and Aletheia. The Platonic Myth as Solution (214). 285
4. The Rivalry between the Ways of Truth. The Truth of the Logos and the Truth of Revelation (217). 289

Chapter 9: Heraclitus

292    [220]
From Parmenides to Heraclitus. The Dimensions of the Soul (220).
1. The Pythagorean Destiny of the Soul. The Psyche of Homer, of Empedocles. Metempsychosis (221). 293
2. The Exploration of the Soul. Ethos as Daemon. The Types of Divine and Human Wisdom. Much-Knowing and Understanding. The Philosopher. Plato's Clarification of the Term. The Life of the Soul: Depth, Increase through Ex- ploration. Love, Hope, and Faith (223). 295
3. The Philosophy of Order. The Logos and its Communication. The Sleep- walkers. Reconstruction of Heraclitean Concepts: Xynon; Logos; Cosmos; Common World and Private Worlds; the Common, the Nous, and the Nomos; Strife and War. The Cycle; the Way; the Kingdom of the Playing Child. Flux. Passion of Existence. The War of Life and the Peace of the Logos. The Many, the Few, and the One (229). 301
4. Conclusions. The Challenge to the Order of the Polis. The New Authority. The Philosopher-King as the Link between Spirit and Power (239). 311

Part Three: The Athenian Century


Chapter 10: Tragedy

317    [243]
1. The Truth of Tragedy. The Awakening of Athens. Aristophanes and Aristotle on Tragedy. The Truth of Action (243). 317
2. The Meaning of Action. The Suppliants of Aeschylus. The Experimental Situation. Conflicts of Themis. Descent into the Depth of the Soul. The Polis as the Heraclitean Xynon. Peitho. The Decision for Dike (247) . The Aeschylean Theory of Action (250). 321
3. Tragedy and History. The Order of Dike and the Disorder of the World (253). The Prometheus . The Theomorphic dramatis personae . The Truth of Being and Daemonic Existence. Titanomachia and Dike. Force in Order. The Problem in the Oresteia (253). Prometheus. Philanthropia. Wisdom v. Self- Reliance. Defiance and Inventiveness. The Spiritual Disease. The Forces of Progress. Excess of Pity and Revolt against God. The Interplay of Jovian and Promethean Forces (257). The Soul as the Hero of the Prometheus . The Birth of History from Tragedy. Comparison with the Meaning of History in China and Israel. Aeschylean Tragedy and Platonic Myth (262). 327
4. The End of Tragedy. The Disintegration of Athens. Its Reflection in the Work of Euripides (264). 338

Chapter 11: The Sophists

342    [267]
The Sophistic Personnel (268). The Achievement. Education for Political Life. Curriculum. Prodicus. The Art of Politics. Protagoras. Law and Order. The Inventory of Problems (270). Plato and the Sophists. The Propositions on God. Gorgias' On Being. The Type of Enlightened Philosophizing. Continuity from the Sophists to Plato (273).
Plato as a Source. The Hippias Anecdote. Autarky (277). Hippias. Truth about Man through Comparative Study. The Hippias Scene in Plato's Protagoras . Physis and Nomos. The Community of Encyclopedic Intellectuals (279). The Essence of Sophistic Ideas (284).
§ 3. PLATO'S Protagoras 359    [285]
The Position of Protagoras. The Myth of Prometheus. Relation to Aeschylus. The Sophist as the Teacher of Man (285). The Socratic Attack. The Debate on Virtue (287). The Art of Measurement. The Transfer of the Prometheus Symbol from Protagoras to Socrates (290).
1. From Parmenides to Protagoras. The Correlation of Nous-Logos and Being. The Immanentization of Nous-Logos: Anaxagoras; Protagoras. The Immanentization of Being: Zeno; the Dialectics of Being. The Dissoi Logoi. Anaxagoras' Theory of Sense Perception. The Protagorean Homo-Mensura (292). 366
2. Democritus. Immanentization of Being: The Atoms and the Void. The Element of Heraclitean Depth. Toward the Recognition of Essence. Essentials of the Psyche: Eudaimonia. Euthymia. Knowledge and Discipline. Joy and Pleasure. Balance and Multifariousness. Health and Disease. Alcmeon. From Democritus to Plato and Aristotle (298). 372
3. Nomos and Physis. Nomos: Pindar; Heraclitus; Six Meanings of Nomos. The Conservative Skepticism of Protagoras. Physis: Pindar; Protagoras. Physis as Essence: Xenophanes; Empedocles; Anaxagoras. The Pair Nomos-Physis: The Hippocratic Airs, Waters, Places; Herodotus (305). 379
4. Antiphon. The Fragments On Truth. Physis, Nomos, and the Sympheron. Justice. The Antithetical Method. The Corruption of Athens as a Motive. The Quality of Late Sophistic Debate (312). 386
5. Critias. The Sisyphus Fragment. Critias' pseudos logos and Plato's pseudos mythos (319). 394
6. Equality, Inequality, Harmony. Disintegration and Search for Substance. A New Climate of Experience: Prodicus, Lycophron, Alcidamas. The Pseudo-Antiphontic Homonoia . The Anonymus lamblichi (323). 397
7. Hippodamus and Phaleas (328). 403

Chapter 12: Power and History

406    [332]
The Great Wars. Decline of Civilization. Dramatic Unity of Mankind (332).
§ I. HERODOTUS 407    [333]
Life and Work (333). The Program (334). The Hypothesis. The Balancing of Accounts. Anaximander and Heraclitus. The Turning of the Wheel. The Power Drive. Necessity and Disaster (335). Historiographic Method. The Use of Speeches (339). The Expedition Against Hellas. The Great Debate. The Motives of Action. Breakdown of the Heraclitean Xynon. The Dream of World Dominion (340). The Form of Government. The Speeches For and Against the Three Forms. The Cycle of Antilogies and the Cycle of History. Decision through Action (341).
§2. THE OLD OLIGARCH 418    [344]
The Pseudo-Xenophontic Constitution of Athens . The Polis a Power Unit. The Change of Ethos as the History of the Polis (344). The Merits of the Demo- cratic Constitution (340. The Merits of Sea Power (347). The Game of Power. Periclean Democracy and Imperialism. Types of Man and Types of Order (348).
§ 3. Thucydides 423    [349]
1. The Syngraphe . The Creation of the Peloponnesian War as a Unit in History (349). 424
2. The Method. The Kinesis. Methodological Attack on Herodotus. The Influence of the Hippocratic Treatises. Categories: Cause, Principle, Method, Eidos, Thing-in-itself, Disturbance, Disease. Different Methodological Situations in Medicine and Politics. Empiricism of the Craftsman and Science. Thucydides' Science of Disorder and Plato's Science of Order (351). 425
3. The Theory. The Splendor of Empire and the Breakdown of Ethos. Progress and Enterprise v. Connivance and Backwardness. Necessity and Justice. The Aeschylean Dike of Action. Attempted Justification and Despair. Theoretical Vacillations. Kinesis and the End of Tragedy. Thucydides and Machiavelli (358). 432
4. The Form. The Speeches as Part and as Interpretation of Reality. Government by Persuasion as Condition of the Form. The Hellenic Interplay between Types of Life and Art. Theory as a Heightening of Types in Reality. The Passing of the Paradigms from the Poets to the Historians and Philosophers (365). 439
5. Formulations. The Positions of the Protagonists. The Pathos of Athens. The Horror of Atrocities. The Melian Dialogue (368). 443